The objective of this lesson is to accelerate the acquisition of driving experience and thus improve the safety of new drivers.

Some of the factors that need to be prioritised are:

1. Familiarity with vehicle controls

2. Commitment, attitude and accepting responsibility

3. Defensive driving – reducing blameworthy risk on the road

4. Positive driving – driver performance and not vehicle performance

The topics for skills development include:

 Observation, judgement and awareness

 Anticipation of buses, lorries and motorcyclists

 The importance of eye contact

 Dealing with vulnerable road users – pedestrians, especially children and pedal cyclists

 Balancing making progress with being cautious

 Good driving habits –consider using Smith System

 Understanding the consequences of getting it wrong.

Observation is the main component of anticipation. Anticipation is the ability to identify, particularly developing hazards at the earliest opportunity. There are three main types of hazards:

1. Physical features such as road junctions, corners, bends and pedestrian crossings.

2. The movement of other road users such as other drivers, pedestrians and cyclists.

3. The weather conditions and how these can affect visibility and grip on the road surface.

Urban roads have many different types of permanent features. When a driver approaches these fixed hazards, there’s often a traffic sign that warns or informs of what the hazard is. Signs that give orders can also determine who has the priority. Some of the physical features of urban roads include; multi-lane junctions, unusual roundabouts, bus and cycle lanes, under and over passes. Things do not just happen randomly, situations normally develop. As with the DVLA’s hazard perception test, all road users are developing hazards. The anticipated movement of other drivers includes buses, lorries and riders and is an important experience element for this module.


Positive Driving - Your Attitude

Responsibility for your actions and consideration for others

Driving Skills - Observation

Assessing what you see and making decisions taking the right action

Observation, Judgement and Awareness

Dealing with

-Complex junctionc including unusual roundabouts

-under and over passes


-bus, cycle and taxi lanes


-being cautious, but not over cautious

-eye contact with other road users

Spatial Awareness and clearance to others

Keeping space around you

Typical features of Urban roads


Consideration for vulnerable road users


Pedestrians and pedal cyclists


Frequently asked questions-

1. What is ‘Smith System’ for good driving habits?

1. Looking well ahead and planning

2. Move your eyes – make eye contact, also check what’s following behind and to the sides.

3. Keeping space around the vehicle – safe following distances

4. Spot the problems – take up the correct road position and adjust speed, in plenty of time

5. Be seen – when to use the headlights or signal, including using the horn.



Contents of this lesson are taken from:

DVLA – The Official Highway Code

Adi News Magazine

Lesson no: 

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